The thought of algebra gives you hives. You’d rather discuss any topic but prime numbers. And you bitterly wonder why the GMAT tests your geometry skills. After all, it’s not like you want to be an architect.
Well, the GMAT is what it is: a quantitative predictor of your success in business school that can be evaluated by the admissions committee. You want to get an MBA. The admissions committee wants to know how you will perform in their classroom. And crouching between you and that degree is the giant spider of middle- and high-school math.
You’re not alone. Many other business school candidates share your apprehension. But in order to beat the GMAT, you’ll need to revisit some math skills that haven’t been dusted off in 5 to 10 years.
What are math skills? There are three types, all tied together:
- A bunch of facts you know, such as “2×2=4.”
- A bunch of processes you can perform, such as how to factor 72 into prime numbers.
- An underlying comprehension you have that connects the facts, the processes, and the real world.
To improve your math skills, you need to do several things: 1) Acquire more facts, 2) Learn more processes (these are stored in the brain separately from the facts), and 3) Connect the facts and processes together in the real world – understand those facts and processes.
Sounds so simple in the abstract, right? Here are five strategies to guide you as you hearken back to your junior-high math classes.
Proudly return to basics.
If necessary, return all the way to first grade with your head held high. Math is hierarchical – you can’t multiply if you can’t add. To put it better, you can’t understand multiplication if you don’t understand addition.
So return to basic principles: arithmetic of whole numbers, positives and negatives, simple fractions and decimals, multiplication tables, and square roots. Get the facts, the processes, and the understanding down pat for those early topics, and build on that foundation.
Believe it or not, many GMAT problems assume that you’ve internalized various mathematical facts, and without these facts at your mental fingertips, successfully answering test questions might be more cumbersome than you’d like. Quick, what’s 11 x 11? 9 x 7? The square root of 225? If this sort of question has you scratching your head or reaching for a calculator, you should prepare yourself for a trip back to rebuild the fundamentals, since calculators are NOT allowed on the GMAT!
Similarly, there are many mechanical operations that you should have down pat. What’s 1/2 + 5/6? 0.001 x 5,260? How about x squared raised to the 3rd power? The GMAT is going to assume that you can quickly and seamlessly perform certain operations to solve problems. For most people, it takes a little (or a lot of) practice to get your math “muscles” back. So, if you didn’t like algebra the first time around, now’s your chance to master it again!
Ask yourself the Polya questions
George Polya, a prominent mathematician, wrote a great little book called How to Solve It, which is all about mathematical problem-solving. (I know you have it on your Amazon wish list.)
Polya recommends that on every problem, you ask yourself these simple, killer questions:
- What are they asking you for? In other words, what is the unknown? Can you give it a name?
- What information have they given you?
- What is the condition that links up the information they’ve given you and the unknown? In other words, how are these things all connected?
- Can you think of a related problem? A simpler problem, maybe?
You’ll be amazed at the progress you can make, once you’ve built the habit of asking these questions every time. And who knows – you may even forget that you “dislike” solving math problems.
Review + Redo every problem
I’ve banged this gong in other contexts, but I’ll bang it again: don’t satisfy yourself with doing a problem once, quickly checking the answer, and moving on. Always choose depth over breadth. Spend the time to create flashcards of entire problems, with solutions on the back. Then deal the flashcards to yourself and redo them yet again. Knowing a few problems in detail – and the mathematical principles underlying them – will help you a ton; knowing many questions “kind-of-sort-of” will be of little use to you.
Master the multiple approaches to a problem
Your problem-solving will be robust and flexible when you have more than one path to the solution. To develop your confidence for a particular problem, don’t rest until you grasp all the possible ways to solve that problem.
For instance, you can solve many number-properties problems either by plugging numbers or by applying rules. Each method has its advantages. The key is to know both methods well – so that they reinforce each other, and so that you can switch between them easily.
Be honest with yourself, but don’t stop believing
Yes, you haven’t yet acquired or mastered all of the skills necessary to do well on GMAT math. But you must believe that you can. Believe that you can change your identity in this respect; believe that you can tear up that “bad at math” label that may have been plaguing you since sixth grade.
You CAN do well on GMAT math, as long as you’re prepared to spend enough time and concentrated energy to build up the basics and dig deeply into problems so that you know them thoroughly. You are indeed smarter than your 14-year old self!